The hindu pdf download today – 3 April 2023

The hindu pdf download today – 3 April 2023

The hindu news paper is such a paper for upsc, state PCS, SSC and any aspirants who prepare, the news or current affairs coming in the hindu news paper helps a lot in the exam but this news paper is not available everywhere Yes, and for some, this news paper also becomes very costly.

But with the help of our team, we are trying to give you the major news coming in The Hindu which can help you in your exam for free, so that every visitor of this website can prepare for the exam with correct information.

You can definitely prepare for your exam by downloading this pdf.

The Hindu Current Affairs

1- 6800 crore spent in 5 years on cleaning Yamuna


The river Yamuna, a major tributary of river Ganges, originates from the Yamunotri glacier near Bandarpoonch peaks in the Mussoorie range of the lower Himalayas at an elevation of about 6387 meters above mean sea level in Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand.


It meets the Ganges at the Sangam (where Kumbh mela is held) in Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh after flowing through Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Delhi.

Length: 1376 km

Important Dam:

Lakhwar-Vyasi Dam (Uttarakhand), Tajewala Barrage Dam (Haryana) etc.

Important Tributaries: Chambal, Sindh, Betwa and Ken.

2- Eravikulam National Park

Location: Idukki District, Kerala

Area: 97 sq. Km

It was declared as a National Park in 1978.

This is also the land of “Neelakurinji”, the flower that blooms once in twelve years.

The highest peak south of the Himalayas – The Anamudi (2695 meters) is situated in this park.

Topography: The major part of the park is covered with rolling grasslands, but several patches of shola forests are also found in the upper part of the valley.


Important flora includes Actinodaphne bourdilloni, Microtropis ramiflora, Pittosporum tetraspermium, Eupatorium adenophorum, Strobilanthus Kunthianus (Neela Kurinji).


29 Species of mammals are found here of which 5 are endemic to the Western Ghats.

The Nilgiri Tahr, Gaur, Sloth Bear, Nilgiri Langur, Tiger, Leopard, Giant Squirrel and wild dog are common.

Half the world population of the endangered Nilgiri Tahr lives here.

140 species of birds of which 10 are unique to the Western Ghats.

The Atlas moth, the largest of its kind in the world is seen in this Park.

More than 100 varieties of butterflies and 20 species of amphibians are also seen here.

Nilgiri Tahr

It is a sure-footed ungulate that is endemic to the southern part of Western Ghats.

Scientific name: Nilgiritragus hylocrius

It is also the state animal of Tamil Nadu.

Conservation Status:

IUCN: “Endangered”

Wildlife (Protection) Act of India, 1972 : Schedule 1

3- China – Bhutan Border Dispute

Bhutan shares a 477 km-long border with China.

China claims certain territories from Bhutan:

In the north – Pasamlung and Jakarlung valleys;

Both of these places are culturally vital for Bhutan.

In the west – Doklam, Dramana, and Shakhatoe, Yak Chu and Charithang Chu, and Sinchulungpa and Langmarpo valleys.

These places are pasture-rich and strategically located in the Bhutan-India-China trijunction, lying close to India’s Siliguri Corridor.

In 2020, China made new claims on Bhutan’s East in the Sakteng sanctuary.

In the west – Doklam, Dramana, and Shakhatoe, Yak Chu and Charithang Chu, and Sinchulungpa and Langmarpo valleys.

These places are pasture-rich and strategically located in the Bhutan-India-China trijunction, lying close to India’s Siliguri Corridor.

In 2020, China made new claims on Bhutan’s East in the Sakteng sanctuary.

Surprisingly, there has been no mention of Eastern Bhutan in the previous rounds of boundary negotiations held between the two countries.

Hence, addition of Eastern Bhutan in the list of disputed territories has baffled Bhutan.

This eastern sector of Bhutan has a large Bhutanese population, traditional Dzongs (fortified monastery) and two Bhutanese districts since time immemorial.

Boundary Negotiation between Bhutan and China

Although, Bhutan does not have a formal diplomatic relation with China, the country began its first border negotiations with China in 1984.

To date, both countries have held 11 expert group meetings and 24 rounds of border negotiations.

In October 2021, Bhutan and China signed an MoU on the Three-Step Roadmap for Expediting the China-Bhutan Boundary Negotiations.

The three-step roadmap has still not been made public.

Why India is keeping an eye on the developments related to China-Bhutan boundary dispute?

India views Chinese presence near Doklam as a major security concern close to the strategic Siliguri corridor.

China has also staked claim to a wildlife sanctuary in Bhutan near the border with Arunachal.

This assumes significance as, in December 2022, Indian and Chinese army troops clashed along the LAC in the Tawang Sector of Arunachal Pradesh.

4- Tourism in India


India’s Tourism is ranked at 10th position in terms of its contribution to World GDP (Gross Domestic Product) in the World Travel and Tourism Council’s report in 2019.

During 2019, contribution of travel & tourism to GDP was 6.8% of the total economy, ~ Rs. 13,68,100 crore (USD 194.30 billion).

In FY20, the tourism sector in India accounted for 39 million jobs, which was 8.0% of the total employment in the country. By 2029, it is expected to account for about 53 million jobs.


Service Sector:

It gives a push to the service sector. A large number of businesses engaged in the service sector such as airlines, hotel, surface transportation, etc. grows with the growth of the tourism industry.

Foreign Exchange:

Foreign Travellers help India in getting Foreign Exchange.

The foreign exchange earnings from 2016 to 2019 grew at a CAGR of 7% but dipped in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The foreign exchange earnings from 2016 to 2019 grew at a CAGR of 7% but dipped in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Preservation of National Heritage:

Tourism helps in preservation of National Heritage and Environment by bringing in focus the importance of sites and the need to preserve them.

Renewal of Cultural Pride:

Tourist spots being appreciated globally instils a sense of pride among Indian residents.

Infrastructural Development:

Now-a-days, it is ensured that Travelers do not face any problem; multiple use infrastructures are getting developed at several tourist places.


It helps in bringing India on the global map of tourism, earning appreciation, recognition and initiates cultural exchange.


Lacking in Infrastructure:

Tourists in India still face many infrastructure related problems like inadequate roads, water, sewer, hotels and telecommunications etc.

Safety and security:

Safety and security of tourists, especially of the foreign tourists, is a major hurdle to tourism development. Attacks on foreign nationals raise questions about India’s ability to welcome tourists from far away countries.

Lack of skilled manpower:

Lack of skilled manpower is another challenge to the Tourism Industry in India.

Absence of basic amenities:

Absence of basic amenities like drinking water, well maintained toilets, first aid, cafeteria etc. at tourist places.


Seasonality in Tourism, with the busy season being limited to six months from October to March and heavy rush in November and December.

Related Initiatives:

Swadesh Darshan Scheme: Under it, the Ministry of Tourism provides Central Financial Assistance (CFA) to State Governments/Union Territory Administrations for infrastructure development of 13 identified theme based circuits.

National Mission on Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive:

PRASAD Scheme was launched by the Ministry of Tourism in the year 2014-15 with the objective of holistic development of identified pilgrimage destinations.

Iconic Tourist Sites:

Buddhist Sites at Bodhgaya, Ajanta & Ellora have been identified to be developed as Iconic Tourist Sites (aimed at enhancing India’s soft power).

Buddhist Conclave:

Buddhist Conclave is organised every alternate year with the objective of promoting India as a Buddhist Destination and major markets around the globe.

Dekho Apna Desh’ Initiative:

It was launched by the Ministry of Tourism in 2020 to encourage the citizens to travel widely within the country thus enabling the development of Domestic Tourism tourist facilities and infrastructure

5- No ‘sayonara’ for Japan in Indo-Pacific geopolitics

The visit by the Japanese Prime Minister, Fumio Kishida, to India, in March 2023, during which he engaged with his Indian counterpart, Narendra Modi, on global and bilateral issues, focused on cooperation between the G-7 and the G-20 (Japan and India hold their presidencies, respectively). Besides this, Mr. Kishida also unveiled “Japan’s New Plan for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific” (FOIP) and exchanged views about deepening the “Japan-India Special Strategic and Global Partnership”.

Japan’s FOIP clearly shows that Japan wants to reinforce the idea that it has been the main champion of the FOIP concept, and Mr. Kishida’s speech underlined that given the current geopolitical landscape with the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war, growing Chinese assertiveness in the South China Sea, East China Sea, the Indian Line of Actual Control and the Taiwan Straits, there is a need to give a fresh push and momentum to this concept. The New Plan for the FOIP lays stress on the need to uphold the rules-based order and respect each other’s territorial sovereignty.

Challenges before the Indo-Pacific

Japan’s new policy focuses on the numerous challenges facing the Indo-Pacific such as the Ukraine war, food security, and cyber space in addition to issues such as ensuring the freedom of the seas, and connectivity among others.

Another challenge which has been highlighted is the lack of a united stand on “what the international order should be” — the differing position of countries on the Russia-Ukraine war has brought this issue to the fore. But there is a firm belief that the FOIP will be able to work with and embrace diverse voices and create an atmosphere of cooperation and collaboration rather than division and confrontation. For attaining this atmosphere of cooperation, ‘rule-making through dialogue’ should be encouraged. The fact that Japan under the FOIP should work alongside other like-minded countries in the region has been mentioned, with India being billed as an ‘indispensable’ partner.

The foundation

There is a realisation that Japan needs to do much more in the region, and towards this, ‘four pillars of cooperation’ under the new FOIP have been outlined: principles for peace and rules for prosperity; addressing challenges in an Indo-Pacific way; multi-layered connectivity; and extending efforts for security and safe use of the “sea” to the “air”.

In the first pillar, it has been pointed out that vulnerable countries usually suffer the most if there is an erosion in the rule of law. Therefore, Japan wants to engage in economic development programmes such as promoting the implementation of the G-20 Principles for “Quality Infrastructure Investment”.

Under the second pillar, Mr. Kishida talked about “expansion of cooperation for the FOIP by incorporating realistic and practical projects in a wide range of areas, such as climate change, food security, global health and cybersecurity”. Japan has been working for long on connectivity projects bilaterally with many countries in the Indo-Pacific region.

Under the third pillar, the three areas identified for introducing more such projects are Southeast Asia, South Asia and the South Pacific/Pacific Island countries. Japan has made a new commitment of $100 million towards the Japan-ASEAN Integration Fund; it will promote the Bay of Bengal-Northeast India industrial value chain concept in cooperation with India and Bangladesh, and the new Palau International Airport Terminal project (an archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean) supported by Japan has also taken off.

Under the fourth pillar, Japan will help in strengthening the capabilities of maritime law enforcement agencies in other countries.

Mr. Kishida also announced that Japan would “mobilize” a total of more than $75 billion in public and private funds in the Indo-Pacific region by 2030 in infrastructure development.

Tokyo’s role

The primary goal of Mr. Kishida’s visit was to reinforce the centrality of Japan in the emerging geopolitics of the Indo-Pacific. In the past, he had stated that “Ukraine today may be East Asia tomorrow”, which shows Japan’s concern about growing Chinese belligerence in the region.

6- Food Security & National Security

Food security has been a long-standing concern for India, given its large population and limited resources. Access to safe and nutritious food has been considered a fundamental right for all citizens, and successive governments have implemented policies to ensure food availability and affordability.

However, the link between food security and national security has become increasingly evident in recent years. India’s vulnerability to climate change, its dependence on food imports, and the growing threat of food-related conflicts have raised alarm bells about the country’s food security.

The connection between national security and access to food was emphasized when the Norwegian Nobel Committee granted the World Food Program the Nobel Peace Prize in 2020, acknowledging its endeavors to address hunger. The committee specifically acknowledged the correlation between hunger, peace, and conflict.

A lack of food security can contribute to a variety of threats to national security, including civil unrest, political instability, and conflict. In this context, it becomes crucial to explore the connection between food security and national security in India and the measures required to strengthen the country’s food system.

Why Ensuring Food Security is Important for India?

Meeting the Nutritional Needs of the Population:

India is home to a significant population that is malnourished or undernourished, which affects their physical and mental growth. Ensuring food security means that people have access to nutritious food to meet their dietary needs.

According to the Global Food Security Index 2022, India has a prevalence of undernutrition of 16.3%. Further, 30.9% of children in India are stunted, 33.4% are underweight, and 3.8% are obese.

According to the Human Development Report 2021-22, India’s rank on the Human Development Index (HDI) has slipped from 130 in 2020 to 132 in 2022.

Supporting Economic Growth:

Agriculture is a crucial sector that contributes significantly to India’s economy. By ensuring food security, the government can support farmers and increase their income, which can help drive economic growth.

Agriculture is essential in ensuring that India achieves its national food security goal.

With over 70% of the population engaged in agriculture-related activities, it is the backbone of India’s economy.

Reducing Poverty:

Food security can play a vital role in reducing poverty levels. By providing access to affordable and nutritious food, people can better manage their expenses, reduce their healthcare costs, and improve their overall quality of life.

According to Global Multidimensional Poverty Index MPI 2022, India has by far the largest number of poor people worldwide at 22.8 crore, followed by Nigeria at 9.6 crore.

Ensuring National Security:

Food security is also essential for India’s national security. A stable food supply can prevent social unrest and political instability, which can threaten national security.

Combating Climate Change:

Climate change poses a significant threat to India’s food security. By adopting sustainable farming practices and investing in climate-resilient crops, India can better adapt to the changing climate and ensure food security for its population.

The International Food Security Assessment for 2022-2032 conducted by GFA-33 USDA, Economic Research Service indicates that India’s large population has a significant impact on food insecurity trends. It is projected that around 333.5 million people will be affected in India during 2022-23.

By the next decade, the number of food-insecure people in India is projected to decrease to 24.7 million.

Challenges of Food Security in India

Inadequate Infrastructure:

Inadequate infrastructure such as inaccessible roads, lack of modern storage technologies, and limited access to credit make it difficult for farmers to transport their produce to the market and store them properly. This leads to high wastage and lower profits for farmers.

Poor Agricultural Practices:

Poor agricultural practices like over-cultivation, excessive use of pesticides, and improper irrigation techniques have led to decreased soil fertility and reduced crop yields. This, in turn, affects food production and availability.

Extreme Weather Conditions:

The extreme weather conditions due to climate change have also caused crop failures and food shortages. Floods, droughts, and heatwaves are becoming more frequent and intense, which affects food production and increases food prices.

Inefficient Supply Chain Networks:

Inefficient supply chain networks, including inadequate transportation, storage, and distribution facilities, also contribute to food insecurity in India. This leads to higher prices for consumers and lower profits for farmers.

Poor Market Infrastructure:

Poor market infrastructure, including a lack of market information, low market transparency, and limited access to markets, also contributes to food insecurity in India.

Fragmented Landholdings:

Fragmented landholdings, where farmers own small and scattered plots of land, make it difficult to adopt modern farming practices and technologies. This, in turn, affects food production and availability.

What Should be the Way Forward?

Investing in Agriculture Production Systems and Research:

The government should invest in modern irrigation systems, agricultural research, and development of high-yielding crop varieties to increase agriculture production.

Improving Storage Facilities for Perishable Commodities:

The government should develop adequate storage facilities to prevent post-harvest losses and ensure the availability of food throughout the year.

Providing Efficient Transportation Networks:

The government should invest in transportation networks for distributing food products across the country to ensure the timely distribution of food products across the country.

Practicing Modern Agriculture Techniques:

The government should conduct awareness campaigns to educate farmers about modern agriculture techniques that can increase crop yields and improve their income.

Prioritizing Agricultural Development:

The government should prioritize agricultural development by investing in improved market infrastructure, efficient transportation networks, and better storage facilities for food products.

Promoting Public-Private Partnerships:

The government should promote partnerships between the public and private sectors to improve agricultural productivity and ensure the availability of food products.

Creating an Early Warning System:

The government should develop an early warning system to detect and respond to food shortages before they become widespread.

Encouraging Sustainable Agriculture Practices:

The government should promote sustainable agriculture practices that preserve soil health and reduce the use of harmful pesticides and fertilizers.

Daily Mains Question GS paper 1,2

Q- What is the relationship between food security and national security, and how can ensuring access to adequate and nutritious food contribute to a nation’s overall security? (250 Words)

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