The hindu current affairs pdf Today – 2 April 2023

The hindu current affairs pdf Today- 2 April 2023

The hindu news paper is such a paper for upsc, state PCS, SSC and any aspirants who prepare, the news or current affairs coming in the hindu news paper helps a lot in the exam but this news paper is not available everywhere Yes, and for some, this news paper also becomes very costly.

But with the help of our team, we are trying to give you the major news coming in The Hindu which can help you in your exam for free, so that every visitor of this website can prepare for the exam with correct information.

You can definitely prepare for your exam by downloading this pdf.

Current Affairs from the Hindu

1- Dragonfly Mission

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Dragonfly mission, (which will be launched in 2027 and land in 2034) plans to fly a drone copter to Saturn’s largest moon Titan in search of the building blocks of life.

Dragonfly mission will study whether the moon of Saturn (Titan) could now be, or once was, home to life.

Dragonfly will fly to dozens of promising locations on Titan looking for prebiotic chemical processes common on both Titan and Earth.

This will be the first time Nasa will fly a multi-rotor vehicle for science on other planet.

Multi-rotor vehicle would have eight rotors (moving component of an electromagnetic system in the electric motor, electric generator, or alternator) and will fly like a large drone.

It will investigate the Titan’s atmospheric and surface properties and it’s subsurface ocean and liquid reservoirs and will also search for chemical evidence of past life.


Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and the second largest moon in our solar system.

It has liquid rivers, lakes, and seas on its surface (though these contain hydrocarbons like methane and ethane, not water).

Titan’s atmosphere is made mostly of nitrogen, like Earth’s, but is four times denser.

Unlike Earth, it has clouds and rain of methane.

It is 886 million miles (1.4 billion kilometers) away from the Sun, about 10 times farther than Earth.

Because it is so far from the Sun it’s surface temperature is (-179 degree Celsius).

2- GST appellate tribunal may be headed by a former Supreme Court judge

Why in News?

Amendments to the Goods and Services Tax (GST) laws to enable the GST Appellate Tribunal’s constitution are expected to be introduced in the Lok Sabha.

The GST Appellate Tribunal is likely to be headed by a former Supreme Court (SC) judge or a former Chief Justice of a High Court (HC).

What Exactly is the Goods and Services Tax (GST)?

It is an indirect tax (not directly paid by customers to the government), that came into effect from 1 July 2017 through the implementation of the 101st Amendment to the Constitution of India by the Indian government.

It has actually replaced various indirect taxes such as – service taxes, VAT, excise and others in the country.

It is levied on the manufacturer or seller of goods and the providers of services.

It is divided into five different tax slabs for collection of tax – 0%, 5%, 12%, 18% and 28%.

Types of GST:

State Goods and Services Tax (SGST), Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST) and the Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST, on exports and imports).

What is the GST Council?

Article 279A of the Indian Constitution gives power to the President of India to constitute a joint forum of the Centre and States called the GST Council, consisting of the –

Union Finance Minister – Chairperson

The Union Minister of State, in-charge of Revenue of finance – Member

The Minister in-charge of finance or taxation or any other Minister nominated by each State Government – Members.

The GST Council is an apex committee to modify, reconcile or to make recommendations to the Union and the States on GST, like the goods and services that may be subjected or exempted from GST, model GST laws, etc.

What is the GST Appellate Tribunal?

The CGST Act empowers the Central Government to constitute, on the recommendation of the GST Council, an Appellate Tribunal known as the GST Appellate Tribunal.

It is the forum of second appeal in GST laws and the first common forum of dispute resolution between Centre and States.

The appeals against the orders passed by the Appellate Authority under the Central and State GST Acts lie before the GST Appellate Tribunal.

Being a common forum, GST Appellate Tribunal will ensure that there is uniformity in redressal of disputes arising under GST, and therefore, in implementation of GST across the country.

3- Bandipur Tiger Reserve


It was established in 1973 under Project Tiger. In 1985, by including adjacent areas from Venugopala Wildlife Park, it was enlarged and named as Bandipur National Park.


It is situated in two contiguous districts (Mysore and Chamarajanagar) of Karnataka and is located at the tri-junction area of the States Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. It forms a part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.

Ecological Diversity

It lies in one of the richest biodiversity areas of the country. It is surrounded by

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve (Tamil Nadu) in the South,

Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (Kerala) in the South-west


It is endowed with rich floral and faunal diversity and is recognized as one of the Mega Biodiversity Areas in the country.

The Bandipur along with Nagarahole, Mudumalai, Sathyamangalam & Wayanad constitutes the single largest Wild population of Tigers in the world.

This Landscape is also home to the single largest Asian Elephant population in the world and is part of the Mysore Elephant Reserve (MER).

Rivers and the Highest Point

The park is located between the Kabini river in the north and the Moyar river in the south. The Nugu river runs through the park. The highest point in the park is on a hill called Himavad Gopalaswamy Betta.

Other Tiger Reserves in Karnataka

Bhadra Tiger Reserve

Nagarahole Tiger Reserve

Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve

Biligiriranganatha Swamy Temple(BRT) Tiger Reserve

Besides, Malai Mahadeshwara Wildlife Sanctuary has been proposed to be made a tiger reserve.

4- Konda Reddy Tribe

It is one of the most backward tribal groups in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.

They inhabit on both the banks of the Godavari River (East and West Godavari districts), in the hilly-forest region of Khammam (Telangana) and Srikakulam (Andhra Pradesh).

They live in the interior forest areas largely cut-off from the mainstream. Traditionally, they were shifting cultivators and recently, some of them have adopted settled agriculture and horticulture. 

Their mother tongue is Telugu with a unique accent.

Konda Reddis have also been recognized as Primitive Tribal Group (now Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups)

The Konda Reddis are known for their eco-friendly practices such as use of household articles made of bamboo, bottle gourd, and seed.

5- RBI allows Trade Settlements in Rupee

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has put in place a mechanism to facilitate International Trade in Rupees (INR), with immediate effect.

Existing Mechanism

If a company exports or imports, transactions are always in a foreign currency (excluding with countries like Nepal and Bhutan).

So, in case of imports, the Indian company has to pay in a foreign currency (mainly dollars and could also include currencies like pounds, Euro, yen etc.).

The Indian company gets paid in foreign currency in case of exports and the company converts that foreign currency to rupee since it needs rupee for its needs, in most of the cases.

What is Rupee Payment Mechanism?

Authorised Dealer Banks in India had been permitted to open Rupee Vostro Accounts (an account that a correspondent bank holds on behalf of another bank).

Indian importers undertaking imports via this mechanism will make payment in INR which will be credited into the Special Vostro account of the correspondent bank of the partner country, against the invoices for the supply of goods or services from the overseas seller.

Indian exporters using the mechanism will be paid the export proceeds in INR from the balances in the designated Special Vostro account of the correspondent bank of the partner country.

Indian exporters may receive advance payment against exports from overseas importers in Indian rupees through the above Rupee Payment Mechanism.

Before allowing any such receipt of advance payment against exports, Indian banks need to ensure that available funds in these accounts are first used towards payment obligations arising out of already executed export orders/export payments in the pipeline.

Balance in Special Vostro Accounts can be used for: payments for projects and investments, export/ import advance flow management, and investment in Government Treasury Bills, Government securities, etc

What are the Benefits of this Mechanism?

Promote Growth

It will promote growth of global trade and will support the increasing interest of the global trading community in INR.

Trade with Sanctioned Countries

Ever since sanctions were imposed on Russia, trade has been virtually at standstill with the country due to payment problems.

As a result of the trade facilitation mechanism introduced by the RBI we see the payment issues with Russia easing.

Forex Fluctuation

The move would also reduce the risk of forex fluctuation, especially looking at the Euro-Rupee parity.

Arrest Fall of Rupee

Amid ongoing rupee weakness, this mechanism aims at reducing demand for foreign exchange, by promoting rupee settlement of trade flows.

6- Enemy property in India

The enemy properties are those left behind by the people who took citizenship of Pakistan and China after leaving India during the partition and after 1962 war.

The enemy properties are vested with the Custodian of Enemy Property for India (CEPI), an authority created under the Enemy Property Act 1968.

The 2017 amendment to the Act (Enemy Property (Amendment and Validation) Act, 2017) stated that the successors of those who migrated to Pakistan and China ceased to have a claim over the properties left behind in India.

Of the total 9,406 enemy properties in India, 9,280 are left behind by Pakistani nationals and 126 properties by Chinese nationals.

Maximum number of enemy properties is in Uttar Pradesh – 4,991. Bengal has 2,735, and Delhi has 487.

7- Pashmina wool

GS Paper – 3, Growth and development, employment


Pashmina is a fine type of cashmere wool. The textiles made from it were first woven in Kashmir.

The wool comes from a number of different breeds of the cashmere goat; such as the changthangi or Kashmir pashmina goat from the Changthang Plateau in Tibet and part of the Ladakh region and few parts of Himachal Pradesh.

Often shawls called shahmina are made from this material in Kashmir and Nepal; these shawls are hand spun and woven from the very fine cashmere fibre.

Traditional producers of pashmina wool are people known as the Changpa.

About Pashmina goat

The Changthangi or Pashmina goat is a special breed of goat indigenous to the high altitude regions of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir.

They are raised for ultra-fine cashmere wool, known as Pashmina once woven. The Textiles are handspun and were first woven in Kashmir.

These goats are generally domesticated and reared by nomadic communities called the Changpa in the Changthang region of Greater Ladakh.

The Changthangi goats have revitalized the economy of Changthang, Leh and Ladakh region.

Pashmina Shawl

They are a fine variant of shawls spun from cashmere wools.

Cashmere wool itself is obtained from the Changthangi goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) native to the high plateau of Ladakh.

Goats used for pashmina shed their winter coat every spring. One goat sheds approximately 80–170 grams of fibre. In the spring (the moulting season), the goats naturally shed their undercoat, which regrows in winter.

This undercoat is collected by combing the goat, not by shearing, as in other fine wool.

The shawl made up of pashmina wool was promoted as an alternative to Shahtoosh shawl. The reason is that Shahtoosh Shawls are made from the Tibetan Antelope.

PYQ -2014

With reference to ‘Changpa’ community of India, consider the following statements:-

1- They live mainly in the state of Uttarkhand
2- They rear the Pashmina goats that yield a fine wool.
3- They are kept in the category of Scheduled Tribes.

Which of the statements given above is / are correct?

A)- 1 only
B)- 2 and 3 only
C)- 3 only
D)- 1,2 and 3

Answer:- (b) The Changpa are a semi-nomadic Tibetan ethnic group found mainly in Zanskar region of Jammu Kashmir. They rear the Pashmina goats that yield a fine wool. They are kept in the category of scheduled Tribes.

8- Kala-azar Disease

Kala-azar cases in India declined by 98.7% between 2007 and 2022, from 44,533 to 834 and 632 endemic blocks (99.8%) spread across Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, and West Bengal have received elimination status (less than one case per 10,000).

The only block that is still in the endemic category is Littipara in the Pakur district of Jharkhand (1.23 cases per 10,000 population).


It is also known as Visceral Leishmaniasis or Black Fever or Dumdum Fever.

There are three types of Leishmaniasis:

Visceral Leishmaniasis, which affects multiple organs and is the most serious form of the disease.

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, which causes skin sores and is the most common form.

Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis, which causes skin and mucosal lesions.

It is a deadly parasitic disease caused by the protozoa parasite Leishmania and mainly affects the people living in Africa, Asia and Latin America.

The disease can cause death, if left untreated.

Global and National Status

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Kala-azar is the second deadliest parasitic disease in the world, and as of November, 2022, about 89% of global cases are reported from eight countries: Brazil, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, and Sudan.

India contributes about 11.5% of total cases of Kala-azar reported globally.

Over 90% of kala-azar cases in India are reported from Bihar and Jharkhand, while Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have achieved their elimination targets at the block level.


It is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female phlebotomine sandfly.

Signs and Symptoms:

Fever, weight loss, anemia, and enlargement of the liver and spleen.


Prevention of kala-azar involves measures to reduce the breeding sites of sandflies and to protect people from sandfly bites.

This can be achieved through the use of insecticides, bed nets, and repellents, as well as the improvement of housing conditions and access to clean water and sanitation.


The treatment of kala-azar involves the use of drugs, such as sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate.

The WHO recommends a combination of two or more drugs for the treatment of kala-azar, as monotherapy has a higher risk of treatment failure and drug resistance.

Related Initiatives:


WHO’s New Roadmap for 2021–2030: To prevent, control, eliminate and eradicate a set of 20 diseases, termed neglected tropical diseases, by 2030.

The WHO has also established the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), which aims to eliminate lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, and Kala-azar by MDA.


The central government has taken several steps to achieve its goal of eliminating kala-azar from India by 2023, including building pucca houses through the PM-AWAS yojana, rural electrification, testing, treatment, periodic high-level review, and award distribution.

The Centre is also supporting the states in active case detection, surveillance, treatment, and supply of diagnostic kits, medicines, and sprays.

National Kala-azar Elimination Programme

The National Health Policy-2002 set the goal of Kala-azar elimination in India by the year 2010 which was revised to 2015.

India signed a Tripartite Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Bangladesh and Nepal to achieve Kala-azar elimination from the South-East Asia Region (SEAR).

UPSC PYQ – 2017

Q- Consider the following statements:

1) In tropical regions, Zika virus disease is transmitted by the same mosquito that transmits dengue.

3) Sexual transmission of Zika virus disease is possible.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer- Ans: (c)

Zika virus is a flavivirus which was first discovered in 1947 in monkeys and then in humans in Uganda in 1952.

Both Zika and Dengue have similarities in terms of symptoms of fever, skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache. In addition to this, the mode of transmission is also same for both the diseases, i.e., both are spread by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus species of mosquitoes. Hence, statement 1 is correct.

Modes of Zika Transmission

Mosquito bites

During pregnancy, from mother to child, which can cause microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. Zika virus has also been found in breast milk.

Sexual transmission from infected partner. Hence, statement 2 is correct.

Through blood transfusion.

9- Marburg virus disease

The World Health Organization recently said that Equatorial Guinea had confirmed its first-ever outbreak of Marburg disease.

What is it?

MVD, earlier known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever, is a rare but severe hemorrhagic fever that affects both people and non-human primates.

Causative agent: MVD is caused by the Marburg virus, a genetically unique zoonotic (animal-borne) RNA virus. Marburg and Ebola viruses are both members of the Filoviridae family (filovirus).

Marburg virus was first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, Germany and in Belgrade, Yugoslavia (now Serbia).

The reservoir host of the Marburg virus is the African fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus.


The Marburg virus is transmitted to people from fruit bats and spreads among humans through human-to-human transmission.

Fatality: The average MVD case fatality rate is around 50%.


There is no specific treatment for Marburg virus disease.

Supportive therapy, such as intravenous fluids, electrolyte replacement, supplemental oxygen, as well as blood and blood products replacement, improves survival.

What are Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs)?

VHFs are a group of diseases that are caused by several distinct families of viruses.

The term “viral hemorrhagic fever” refers to a condition that affects many organ systems of the body, damages the overall cardiovascular system, and reduces the body’s ability to function on its own.

Some VHFs cause mild illnesses, while others can cause severe, life-threatening diseases.

Most VHFs have no known cure or vaccine.

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UPSC PYQ -2021 | Polity PYQ

Q. which one of the following in Indian polity is an essential feature that indicates that is federal in character?

A) The independence of judiciary is safeguarded.
B) The Union Legislature has elected representatives from constituent units.
C) The Union Cabinet can have elected representatives from regional parties
D) The Fundamental Rights are enforceable by Courts of Law. The Fundamental Rights are enforceable by Courts of Law.


Answer is A.

Q. which one of the following in Indian polity is an essential feature that indicates that is federal in character?

A) The independence of judiciary is safeguarded.
B) The Union Legislature has elected representatives from constituent units.
C) The Union Cabinet can have elected representatives from regional parties
D) The Fundamental Rights are enforceable by Courts of Law. The Fundamental Rights are enforceable by Courts of Law.

Answer- Ans- is A.

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